Monday, 21 July 2014 20:14

"Orion" (USA, 1955 – 1965) – the project of a manned spacecraft for flight to Mars. According to the draft space ship "Orion" will fly with the power of nuclear explosions, each of which will generate a temperature several times higher than the surface of the Sun. The first tests took place in the New Mexico tests showed that the bomb could push the ship without destroying it. The bottom of the sample was made of steel, on the outside at the bottom was a bomb that pushed the ship. The ship itself was shaped like a bullet and weighed 133 kg. After testing, engineers concluded that between the vehicle and the plate (bottom of specimen) is required dampers that will reduce acceleration.

Further, it became clear that the plate can take the brunt of the blast wave and the shock absorbers reduce the acceleration force that the one a person can withstand. A limitation of the project was the question of which should be a blast, not to destroy the ship and get to Mars. The calculations showed that each explosion can raise the test sample for 10 meters. To leave earth's orbit it needs about 1000 bombs for the flight to Mars is hundreds of times more. It was necessary to take into account the fact that the plate is heated and destroyed after a large number of explosions. During the construction of spaceship his weight is increased  and accordingly, required the more force of the explosion.

Also left unresolved questions about the living compartment of the ship and about the nuclear waste. On the body of residents of the surrounding areas, where nuclear tests were conducted, was found traces of radiation. According to the calculations of F. Dyson (one of the designers of the project "Orion") for each flight into space on the rocket "Orion" can die from 1 to 10 employees. The Orion project was suspended in early 1960 and finally closed in 1965. In the future, the agency NASA decided to use the new rockets to get tasks in cosmos and on Mars.